Malnutrition is a common and often unrecognized problem in stroke patients, especially the elderly, admitted to hospital. Those who remain in hospital for prolonged periods are also at risk. Inevitably, the reported frequency of malnutrition after stroke has varied depending on patient selection, the definitions of malnutrition and the method and timing of assessments.
Some stroke patients have a loss of appetite. For others, eating may be difficult due to swallowing problems or limited hand or arm movement.Poor nutrition, although not specifically in stroke patients, has been associated with reduced muscle strength, reduced resistance to infection and impaired wound healing. Among patients with stroke, most of whom are elderly, muscle weakness, infections and pressure sores are common and account for significant mortality and morbidity. It is plausible that malnutrition could increase the frequency of these
problems and result in poorer outcomes.
Therefore, make sure you’re getting the nutrition you need. To make eating a little easier again, try these steps:
- Choose healthy foods with stronger flavors, such as broiled fish and citrus fruits. Also, spices add flavor to food and serve as a good substitute for salt.
- Choose colorful, visually appealing foods, such as salmon, carrots and dark green vegetables.
- Cut foods into small pieces to make them easier to chew.
- Pick softer, easier-to-chew foods, such as yogurt, bananas, whole-grain hot cereals and low sodium soups.
- Eat a diet rich in vegetables and fruits.
- Choose whole-grain, high-fiber foods.
- Eat fish at least twice a week.
- Limit saturated fat and trans fat. Avoiding partially hydrogenated oils will reduce trans fats.
- Choose lean meats and poultry, and prepare them without using saturated or trans fats.
- Select low-fat dairy products.
- Cut back on drinks and foods with added sugars.
- Choose and prepare foods with little salt (sodium).
- If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. Limit yourself to one drink per day if you’re a non-pregnant woman or two drinks if you’re a man.
- If you have trouble swallowing, talk to your speech therapist or doctor. This condition can be treated.
- If weakness in arms or hands is a problem, you might try adaptive eating utensils. Some types of flatware have thicker handles that are easier to hold, and “rocker knives” make it possible to cut food using one hand.
What you eat and how you prepare it can help reduce your risk of stroke and heart disease. The right diet can help improve your cholesterol levels and blood pressure and can help you feel better and have more energy.
Weight loss gets harder as you get older. With the right kind of weight loss workout, you could burn up to 200 extra calories a day. Of course nights are great for going on dates, watching your favorite movie on Netflix, doing work, chatting on the phone, eating dinner and sleeping. But you know what else they’re great for? Setting yourself up for bigger and better weight-loss results. Just follow these tips to get yourself that much closer to your goal weight.
Do a Nighttime Workout
You know that sweating can help you drop KGs, but you may think that exercising too close to bedtime can keep you up at night. Luckily, that’s not true; a 2013 survey from the National Sleep Foundation found that active people are 56 to 67 percent more likely to say they usually get a good night’s sleep—no matter what time of day they exercise. Check out these four reasons why it’s OK to work out at night.
Pack Your Lunch
The average restaurant meal contains more than twice the number of calories you should be consuming in one sitting, according to a 2013 study—and that’s not even taking into account the lower calorie count you’ll want your lunch to clock in at if you’re trying to drop pounds. But in the a.m. rush, who has time to make lunch? Save yourself from a midday diet-wrecker by prepping your meal the night before. (We love make-ahead mason jar salads in particular.)
Drink Lots of Water
H2O flushes out your system, which helps you get rid of any water you’re retaining. But since you don’t want to be up all night running to the bathroom (and getting quality shuteye is crucial to weight loss), Gans suggests putting a halt to your water chugging one hour before bedtime.
Make Sure Your Bedroom is Super Dark
The hormone melatonin can help your body produce more calorie-burning brown fat, according to an animal study published last year in Journal of Pineal Research. Since your body already produces melatonin when you’re in complete darkness, make sure your room is light-free to boost weight loss.
Turn Down the Thermostat Before Hitting the Hay
The idea of burning more calories while you sleep may sound too good to be true, but a National Institute of Health Clinical Center study found that people who slept in a 66-degree room burned seven percent more calories than people who snoozed at 75 degrees. Seven percent isn’t a ton—but it can’t hurt!
We always stumble across several weight loss myths you’ve always believed. Here are a few weight loss myths that may surprise you:
1. “Eat Less, Move More” is good advice
Body fat is simply stored energy (calories). To lose fat, more calories need to be leaving your fat cells than entering them. In other words, if calories out surpass calories in, fat loss occurs. That is a fact. For this reason, it seems only logical that “eating less and moving more” would cause weight loss. It works on both sides of the calorie equation.
However, this is really terrible advice for those with a serious weight problem. Most people who follow this advice end up gaining it back, and there are physiological and biochemical reasons for this. A major and sustained change in perspective and behavior is needed to lose weight with diet and exercise. Simply telling people to eat less and move more isn’t enough.
Telling someone with obesity to just “eat less, move more” is like telling someone with depression to cheer up, or someone with alcoholism to just drink less.
It’s ineffective. Telling people with weight problems to just “eat less, move more” is ineffective advice. It rarely works in the long term.
2. Body can’t use the protein from beans unless you eat them with rice
Proteins—which our bodies need to make everything from new muscle to hormones—are made up of different combinations of 20 amino acids. Thing is, our bodies can make only 11 of these amino acids; we must get the other nine from food. Animal-based protein-rich foods like eggs and meat provide all nine of these “essential” amino acids, but nearly all plant foods are low in at least one.
Experts used to say that to get what your body needs to make proteins, you needed to pair plant-based foods with complementary sets of amino acids—like rice and beans. Now they know that you don’t have to eat those foods at the same meal. If you get a variety of foods throughout the day, they all go into the ‘basket’ of amino acids that are available for the body to use.
3. Carbs make you fat
Low-carb diets can help with weight loss. That is a scientific fact. In many cases, this happens even without conscious calorie restriction. As long as the carbs are kept low and protein intake is high, people lose weight.
However, this does not mean that carbs per se cause weight gain. The obesity epidemic started around 1980 but humans have been eating carbs for a very long time. The truth is, refined carbs (like refined grains and sugar) are definitely linked to weight gain, but whole foods that are high in carbs are very healthy.
Low-carb diets are very effective for weight loss. However, carbs are not what causes obesity in the first place. Whole, single ingredient carb-based foods are incredibly healthy.
4. Calories eaten at night are more fattening than those eaten early in the day
Calories are calories are calories, and it doesn’t matter what time you eat them. What matters are the total calories you take in
5. Eating fat makes you fat
Body fat is stored fat. So, eating more fat should make us store more of it. It seems logical.
However, it turns out that things aren’t this simple. There is nothing uniquely fattening about fat, except that it is often found in calorie-dense junk foods. As long as calories are within range, fat does not make you fat. Additionally, diets that are high in fat (but low in carbs) have been shown to cause weight loss in numerous studies.
As with so many things in nutrition, this depends entirely on the context. Eating a lot of fat along with a high-carb, high-calorie, junk food-based diet will definitely make you fat. But it’s not just because of the fat. Fat has often been blamed for the obesity epidemic, but there is nothing inherently fattening about dietary fat. It depends entirely on the context.
6. It is best to eat many small meals throughout the day
It is often claimed that people should eat many, small meals throughout the day to keep the metabolism high. But the studies clearly disagree with this. Eating 2-3 meals per day has the exact same effect on total calories burned as eating 5-6 (or more) smaller meals.
Eating frequently may have benefits for some people (like preventing excessive hunger), but it is incorrect that this affects the amount of calories we burn.
There are even studies showing that eating too often can be harmful. A new study came out recently showing that more frequent meals dramatically increased liver and abdominal fat on a high calorie diet. It is not true that eating many, smaller meals leads to an increase in the amount of calories burned throughout the day. Frequent meals may even increase the accumulation of unhealthy belly and liver fat.
7.Eating breakfast is necessary to lose weight
Studies show that breakfast skippers tend to weigh more than breakfast eaters. However, this is probably because people who eat breakfast are, on average, more likely to have other healthy lifestyle habits.
This was recently tested in a controlled trial, the largest of its kind. This was a study of 309 men and women that compared recommendations to either eat or skip breakfast. They found no effect after a 4 month study period. It didn’t matter whether people ate or skipped breakfast, neither had an effect on weight.
It is also a myth that breakfast boosts metabolism, or that eating multiple, smaller meals makes you burn more calories throughout the day.
Eat when you’re hungry, stop when you’re full. Eat breakfast if you want to, but don’t expect it to have a major effect on your weight. It is true that breakfast skippers tend to weigh more than breakfast eaters, but controlled trials show that it doesn’t matter for weight loss whether you eat or skip breakfast.
8. Egg yolks should be avoided because they are high in cholesterol
We’ve been advised to cut back on whole eggs because the yolks are high in cholesterol. However, cholesterol in the diet has remarkably little effect on cholesterol in the blood, at least for the majority of people.
Studies have shown that eggs raise the “good” choleserol and don’t raise risk of heart disease.
One review of 17 studies with a total of 263,938 participants showed that eating eggs had no effect on the risk of heart disease or stroke in non-diabetic individuals.
However, keep in mind that some studies have found an increased heart attack risk in diabetics who eat eggs. Whole eggs really are among the most nutritious foods on the planet and almost all the nutrients are found in the yolks.
Telling people to throw the yolks away may just be the most ridiculous advice in the history of nutrition. Despite eggs being high in cholesterol, they do not raise blood cholesterol or increase heart disease risk for the majority of people.
I have received many enquiries regarding healthy snacks options and I have decided to share some of the healthy snacking ideas. Snacking is an effective way to fit extra nutrients into our diet and prevent overeating at mealtimes. There is an average of 24 percent of our calories are from snacks. Therefore, with snacking providing this much of the day’s calories, choosing healthy options is crucial.
Healthy snack #1: Hard-boiled egg
Eggs really are one of nature’s most perfect portable foods. Packed with protein and antioxidants, they satisfy your hunger and improve your health. 1 large egg approximately provides 6 grams of protein.
Eggs are one of the healthiest foods on the planet, containing small portions of almost every essential vitamin and mineral, including selenium, vitamin B12, vitamin B5 and B6, vitamin B2, vitamin A, vitamin E, as well as calcium, iron, potassium, manganese, Folate, and zinc. Eating one or two eggs a day is a great way to add healthy protein to your diet.
Healthy snack #2: Low-Fat Greek Yogurt
Eating 1-2 portions of low-fat yogurt each day is a healthy and delicious way to up your protein intake in a healthy way.
This thick and creamy bowl will provide roughly 10 grams of protein per 100 gram serving. And you can also buy it in plain, low fat and it’s great to serve with fruits, cereal, or nuts.
Healthy snack #3: Nuts
Eating a handful of nuts instead of chips or chocolate for your afternoon snack will go a long way in adding a boost of protein to your diet. If you’re concerned about calories, limit your nut intake to a handful or two, and remember that though nuts are high in fat, it’s healthy monounsaturated fat, which doesn’t clog arteries and is an essential part of a healthy diet. Plus, nuts are high in fiber, which when paired with their protein content, keeps you feeling full longer.
Among all the nuts, numerous studies have found that almonds can help lower levels of harmful LDL cholesterol. They are also extremely high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and have been shown to help manage weight.
Healthy snack #4: Peanut Butter
Eating peanut butter is perhaps the easiest (and most delicious) way to up the amount of healthy protein in your diet. For those of you with little time to prepare healthy snacks, simply consuming a dab on an apple slice or a celery stalk will give you a whopping 16 ounces of healthy protein for the day.
Although peanut butter does contain fat and saturated fat, it can be part of a healthy diet when eaten in small amounts. Just remember not to slather it on crackers — instead, spread it on carrot or celery sticks for healthy snacking.
Healthy snack #5: Herbalife Protein Shake
Herbalife Formula 1 protein shake is always a delicious and convenient way to add protein to your diet. I personally recommend adding Herbalife Formula 3 Soy and Whey protein to your blender because it’s a high-quality, complete protein. This means it contains all of the essential amino acids your body needs to build and maintain muscle, and it provides a feeling of fullness.
Simply combine your Herbalife protein shake with nonfat milk, frozen fruit, all-natural nut butter, or whatever other healthful ingredients sound good to you, and you have a healthy meal replacement or snack. Because you control the ingredients, Herbalife shakes let you skip the added sugar that often comes with store-bought protein bars and shakes.
Healthy snack #5: Herbalife Protein Bar
Protein bars as a between meal snack can really help you to reach your weight loss goals if you know which type to look for as there are big differences in nutritional content and number of calories between the many bars on the market. Don’t choose a ‘meal replacement’ protein bar, it will almost certainly have too many calories.
Herbalife protein bar is an ideal protein snack to give you a boost on the go. This deliciously chewy bar is packed with protein, soluble fiber, vitamins and minerals to help satisfy hunger. Chewy bar with 23 vitamins and minerals and 12 g of soy and whey protein blend per serving.
Happy smart snacking!